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Here are three commissioned essays that serve as the concluding chapters of edited volumes.

Permanently Beta

Researchers in science and technology studies have long-recognized that the design process is not completed when manufacturers ship out a new product. Instead, users complete the design process when they resist some uses inscribed in the product, identify other affordances, and modify the product. All products, and especially new and unfamiliar ones, entail considerable interpretive flexibility. The new user innovation communities make this insight a part of corporate strategy. Instead of a hit or miss approach, they actively foster communities of users and involve their participation at ever-earlier stages of the design process. This is search when you don't know what you're looking for, relying on the users to recognize it when they find it.

Society Online: The Internet In Context. Sage, 2003, pp. 173-88.